Drug induced cognitive impairment is often overlooked in the hospital as well as the workplace and attributed to an underlying medical illness or merely to “old age,” when it is actually a side-effect of a drug. In many cases, the reason for prescribing the culprit drug is questionable, or the cognitive impairment is related to taking mg medical illness or merely to “old age,” when it is actually a side-effect of a drug. In many cases, the reason for prescribing the culprit drug is questionable, or the cognitive impairment is related to taking multiple drugs at once without any consideration of the other drugs (prescription or over the counter) that were taking.
SOcial and cultural demands in regards to the older adult are constantly changing. Unfortunately the older adult has to adappt to the aging process, loss of their health ,loss of function, disability, loss of life long friends as well as family members,and new technological advances, all of which the elderly patient “Must take advantage off”. All of these conditions place a demand and stress on the elderly patient to function at an optimal level as well as maintain his or her independence. Cognitive changes faced by the aging population range from age associated memory impairment, to mild cognitive impairment, to Dementia and it’s consequences. . Demands for the aging person to maintain optimal function can and will precipitate anxiety as well as depression. The diagnosis of Dementia and it’s added restrictions can contribute to a decrease in independence, poor self esteem, lower self confidence, and a withdrawal into a more isolated lifestyle.
Often these changes are brought about by the elderly persons children or other caring relative who mean good but do not understand that what there are insisting that the elderly patients do might be good for his safety but is putting a tremendous strain on there cognitive abilities often time causing them to shut down and completely withdraw from a functioning lifestyle
Prevention And Treatment??
A number of factors such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormone replacement therapy, and the antioxidant vitamin E, could be of some use in strategies to prevent AD as well as cognitive impairment. Prevention could take place before any signs of the disease or appear or secondary after some manifestation of the process has taken place.. Primary preventive measures would have to be directed at either the entire population or to particular groups at risk (identified by family history or genotype, for example), and therefore would have to be entirely benign and almost cost-free to be acceptable to the masses. Secondary prevention, possibly in those with memory impairments not serious enough to amount to Dementia (minimal cognitive impairment), is a more realistic prospect to deal with rendering the determination of the very earliest signs of disease or evidence of a prodromal state a high priority. THUS A biological marker for AD would have immense utility in both clinical practice and in clinical trials for those concentrating solely on Alzheimer’s disease.
A pilot clinical trial using intranasal insulin therapy for Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a . Intranasal insulin therapy may be useful for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease – we just have to wait and hope.
When dementia is clinically present, and depression and delirium have been ruled out (or diagnosed and treated, without conclusion of the apparent dementia), further studies and tests may enable a diagnosis of a specific cause of the dementia. A “dementia work-up” does not actually determine whether a person has dementia or not, but is a search for conditions which may account for the dementia which is clinically diagnosed a link. Most dementias are irreversible, but it is especially important to look carefully for those causes which can be treated and reversed. A careful review of the person’s medications should be done in all cases. A number of medications, including sedative-hypnotics and anticholinergics, are commonly prescribed for elderly persons, and are known to have cognitive impairment as a side effect. Any Doctor who prescribes such a medication having cognitive impairment as a side effect should in my opinion be avoided.
Initial suspicion of dementia may be strengthened by performing the commonly used mini mental state examination, after excluding clinical depression. Psychological testing generally focuses on memory, attention, abstract thinking, the ability to name objects, visuospatial abilities, and other cognitive functions. The Results of psychological tests may not actually automatically distinguish Alzheimer’s disease from other types of dementia, but can be helpful in establishing the presence and severity of dementia. They can also be useful in distinguishing true dementia from temporary (and more treatable) cognitive impairment due to depression or psychosis, which has sometimes been termed “pseudodementia”. In addition, a 2004 study by Cervilla and colleagues showed that tests of cognitive ability provide useful predictive information up to a decade before the onset of dementia. However, when diagnosing individuals with a higher level of cognitive ability, in this study those with IQ’s of 120 or more, patients should not be diagnosed from the standard norm but from an adjusted high-I.Q norm that measured changes against the individual’s higher ability level. Since i have an iq of 120 we’ll just have to wait to see what will happen
The relationship between AD and depression is complex. Depression is a risk factor for AD, depression can be confused with dementia (pseudodementia), depression occurs as part of dementia, and cognitive impairments are found in depression. Depression occurring as a symptom of dementia will be considered here. Assessing the mood of a person with dementia is difficult for obvious reasons. However, psychomotor retardation, apathy, crying, poor appetite, disturbed sleep, and expressions of unhappiness all occur frequently in the person with Dementia.
Just as research can broadly be seen to have three phases-discovery, neuropathology, and molecular aspects-so too does the clinical response to AD. For many years cognitive impairment in the elderly was perceived as senility and sometimes was referred to as Harding of The arteries. As a process thought to be an inevitable consequence of ageing it was difficulty to establish medical-care models.Because of this the needs of the elderly with AD were not seen as requiring specialist intervention, carers needs were not realized, and public appreciation of the impact of dementia on the elderly themselves or on the family was negligible. The change in perception of AD from ‘just ageing’ to a disease was accompanied, and to some degree led, by the development of ‘old age psychiatry’ as a specialism on the one hand and by the rapid growth of the Alzheimer disease societies on the other.
I Have Alzheimer’s